Fragmentation is an important aspect of all block caving operations. The primary fragmentation can be difficult to assess, in particular in complex geological environments, and for rock masses subjected to varying stress as is normally the case in block caving.
LKAB’s Kiirunavaara Mine is a large, underground, sub-level caving mine that has been seismically active since approximately 2008. With this seismic activity comes associated vibrations. These vibrations can be felt on surface in the town of Kiruna, which is currently located close to the mine on the hangingwall side. The mine is undergoing a national permitting process concerning a desired increased production rate. An important question for this process is: will the increased production rate result in changes to vibrations in the town due to seismicity?
The Northern Link (Norra Länken) will be part of a major road system surrounding the Stockholm metropolitan area. As part of the design work for this project, Itasca Consultants AB and Itasca Consultants S.A.S. has performed a three-dimensional numerical study to analyze of the effect of a large surface load being applied on top of a tunnel intersection with low (4 m) rock cover. The analyses were performed using FLAC3D, and the model was constructed with KUBRIX Geo mesh generator using in conjunction with the Rhino CAD package.